boydi. You can bring out the natural sweetness of bee balm by making a floral jelly for use on toast or muffins. https://www.youtube.com/c/SocietyofPharmaceuticalSciencesandResearch. Used as a mouthwash, bee balm is a treatment for sore throats and mouth sores. A. and Ayensu. An on-line version is also available. In view of pharmacological aspect, Buddleja asiatica is screened for antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, hypotensive, anticancer, antifungal, antimalarial and antioxidant activities. 10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.7(12).4697-09, All © 2020 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Subscribe to YouTube Channel of SPSR Common Names:  Dogtail, Asian Butterfly Bush. The parts of the plant that grow above the ground are used to make medicine. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. Bee Balm Jelly. Liu YP, Caia XH, Lia WQ, and Luo XD: Two New Oleanane-type Triterpenoids from, Chen H, Xu C, Liu DQ, An SQ and Tan RX: Buddlin, a new compound from, Ali F, Khan HU, Afzal M, Samad A, Khan SU and Ali I: Two new cholinesterase inhibitors asiatoates A and B from, Dawidar AM, Omar M Khalaf, Soha MM. In meghalaya the flowers of the plant is cooked as a vegetable 15. Apart from this many phytoconstituents like fenchone, anethole, phytol, sulfolane, 4-oxo-ß-ionol, 5, 7-dimethoxy-2, 2-dimethyl-2H-chromene, and 4-isopropyl-5-methylphenol were identified from various extracts of Buddleja asiatica 37. These can be raised in about four months at lower altitudes 9. At an IC50 of 5.2 μM the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Buddleja asiatica showed acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity and butyryl choline esterase inhibitory effect at an IC50 of 27.9 Μm 22. Two new triterpenoids namely 13, 28-epoxy-23-hydroxy-11-oleanene-3-one and 13, 28- epoxy-21β, 23-dihydroxy-11-oleanene-3-one were isolated from the aerial parts of Buddleja asiatica. Known compounds like 13, 28-epoxy-3β, 23-O-isopropylidene-11-oleanene, 13, 28-epoxy-3β, 23-dihydroxy-11 oleanene, 3β, 23, 28-trihydroxy-11α-methoxy-12 oleanene, maslinicacid, β-amyrin, oleanolic aldehyde and oleanolic acid were also isolated from the methanol extract 34 of Buddleja asiatica. Another study on the essential oil composition of B. asiatica leaves reported β-caryophyllene oxide (21.7%), citronellol (16.7%) and β-caryophyllene (15.8%) as major components 29. Plants have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used … Other Uses. Since Buddleja asiatica holds a high medicinal value, further studies on this plant should be considered in phytochemical standardization and clinical studies. Finally has been used to treat itchy rashes, ulcers and for the topical treatment of warts, pimples, acne dermatitis and corn s. Traditionally it is used in the treatment of many health disorders such as inflammation, rheumatism, skin disease, malaria etc. In Nepal the whole plant is used as an animal fodder 20. In another study Buddleja asiatica was investigated for its use in in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Mosquitoe repellents: In order to protect us from many mosquito borne diseases like dengue, malaria etc mosquito repellents are prepared naturally as well as chemically. The plant prefers rich loamy soils but can thrive in sunny, sandy or partly shaded areas. The leaves are also made into a paste and applied in forehead to reduce fever. While you shouldn't eat parts of the butterfly bush, the bush has its place in the edible food garden. Cultivation: Buddleja asiatica spreads quickly, with aggressively taking over many endemic plants. The dorsal parts of the leaves are green in color while the base part is whitish green. 3β,23,28-trihydroxy-11α-methoxy-12-oleanene. TABLE 4: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IDENTIFIED, ISOLATED FROM BUDDLEJA ASIATICA. Canberra, Australia: Bureau of Rural Sciences 2003; 115-117. The juvenile stems contain dense brown hairs. Lloydia 1970; 33:87–94. Singh S, Mathur A, Sinha J, Singh N and Kohli R: A Study on the Mechanism of the Hypotensive Activity of, Liao YH, Houghton PJ and Hoult JR: Novel and known constituents from, John and Ravindarraj: Antioxidant activity of, El-Domiaty MM, Wink M, Abdel Aal MM, Abou-Hashem MM and Abd-Alla RH: Antihepatotoxic Activity and Chemical Constituents of, Joshi S, Mishra D, Bisht G and Khetwal KS: Comparative study of essential oil composition of, Liu YP, Caia XH, Lia WQ, and Luo XD: Phenylpropanoid Esters of Rhamnose from, El-Sayed MM, Abdel-Hameed el-SS, Ahmed WS and el-Wakil EA: Non -phenolic antioxidant compounds from, Fathy MM, Al-sofany RH, Kassem HA and Kandil ZA: Phytochemical And Biological Studies of Some Phenolic from. Ethnopharmacological relevance: Leaf extracts of Buddleja globosa (Buddlejaceae) are used in Chilean folk medicine for wound healing. The isolated compounds were identified by comparing their physicochemical and spectral data. Amphotericin and miconazole were used as standard drugs. People take common stonecrop for coughs and high blood pressure. The leaves of this plant are mixed with rice flour and used for the preparation of an alcoholic beverage called judima by tribals of Sikkim 14. The database and code is licensed under a Groves RH, Hosking JR, Batianoff GN, Cooke DA, Cowie ID, Johnson RW and Moerkerk M: Weed categories for natural and agricultural ecosystem management. In another experiment done on leaves of methanolic extracts of Buddleja asiatica, some flavonoids like quercetin, kaempferol, rutin, ajugol and luteolin were isolated by column chromatography 33. Bate-Smith EC: The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. The infusion of the leaves is used as a diuretic and to treat swellings due to falls etc. ]. The results indicated that hesperitin -7 – O – rutinoside can act as a strong antioxidant compound 27. Ethno Medicinal Uses of Buddleja saligna Administered to people: Unspecified parts are used by the Zulus to treat coughs and colds. Buddleja flowers, known as Mi Meng Hua in Traditional Chinese Medicine, are small clusters of flowers, which are dried and used in medicinal formulas. Buddleja globosa Hope is a native, medicinal plant well-known for its digestive and cicatrizing properties. Publication Author Uphof. Its fruit paste is applied on wounds, bark powder is used in heart diseases, the bark paste mixed with honey is used to improve complexion. Antiinflammatory activity: A study was investigated with lipophilic extracts of B. myriantha stems, B. yunanesis stems and B.asiatica stems to find out their anti inflammatory effect. Animal Feed Science and Technology 1997; 68(1/2):37-54. In another study, the essential oil obtained from the leaves of this plant showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus with 77% zone of inhibition 22. Raja S and Ramya I: A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Buddleja asiatica. Buddleja asiatica is an erect evergreen shrub or small tree growing up to the height of 1–5m. Form: Rounded. The plant typically grows well in neutral or slightly acidic soil with a minimum support from basic (alkaline) soil 7. Arjuna is a medicinal tree and its various parts are used in the treatment of a variety of ailments especially heart diseases. It is hardy to zone (UK) 8. It is an evergreen deciduous, plant that blooms from the month of march to june with the flowers having a pleasant odor. Two benzoates called 3,3-dimethylundecan-20-yl4-acetyl - 2,3,6-trimethoxy benzoate and 3,3-dimethylundecan-20- yl 4-acetyl-6-hydroxy-2,3-dimethoxybenzoate were isolated from ethylacetate soluble 36 fraction of Buddleja asiatica. Watering can be reduced in winter. Buddleja asiatica adapts itself to arid or drought conditions, but the plants grow well in soils that are moist or wet. ]. This Journal licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. If you would like to support this site, please consider, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. flexenari and Shigella. In case of proper planting and cultivation, the brown seeds of the plant are sown in bed of soil and watered. The pharmacological activities of the plant are summarized in Table 3. Wagner WL, Herbst DR and Sohmer SH: Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I, USA: University of Hawai'i Press, 1999. GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India, DOI: Rated 5.00 out of 5Sage, White (Salvia apiana) seeds, organic $3.95 – $54.10 Select options Rated 5.00 out of 5Lettuce, Wild (Wild Lettuce) (Lactuca virosa) seeds, organic $3.95 Select options Rated… The plant has numerous winged seeds that are carried away by wind, bees, and butterflies over a wide area of places thereby dispersing the plant in large scale 8. It provides relief from Lower Back Pain. A new iridoid glucoside named 6 – O - (3’’, 4’’-dimethoxy cinnamoyl) catalpol, was isolated from the plant 28. Medicinal Plants of China Publication Author Duke. Richard Morris. All these actions were done at concentrations 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/ml respectively. B. asiatica stems showed inhibitory activities against COX enzymes 26. Ali F, Ali I, Khan H, Khan and Gilani AH: Studies on, Ali F, Jan AK, Khan NM, Ali N and Khan S: GC/MS Analysis, antimicrobial and in vitro anti-cholinesterase activities of the essential oil from, Khan FA, Khan NM , Khan HU , Khan S, Ahmad and Maitland DJ: Buddlejol, a new a-chymotrypsin inhibitor from. Hypotensive activity: A study was investigated with the methanol extract obtained from the leaves of the plant B.asiatica. Buddleja asiatica is enriched with phytoconstituents like alkaloids, phenyl propanoid, flavonol, carotenoid, steroid, lipid and terpenes. Generally, the plants which posses some medicinal uses fall under List of Herbs. The taxonomical classification of Buddleja asiatica is mentioned in Table 1. In an experiment conducted with various extracts from various plants of Tamilnadu, the petroleum ether extract (9% conc.) It inhibits the risk of causing Syphilis. It has become widespread and locally abundant. of Buddleja asiatica was reported to give a long lasting three hours protection from mosquito bite 24. In Pakistan the decoction of root barks are used for premature abortion 17. In 1908 the plant was first reported in Hawaii and currently the plant is recorded on all islands in and around Hawaii. All the compounds were found to be potent antioxidant agents 31. Kay MK, Gresham B, Hill RL and Zhang X: The disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae and the biological control of. Butterfly Bush Medicinal use. Medicinal The plant is used as a pectoral[46. The tree is trichotomously branched and has a bark that can be peeled. This ancient herbal knowledge is still being used by many doctors for curing health issues. Buddleja auriculata will grow in almost any soil but it does need good drainage. Authors Address: Arjun J, Verma A K and Prasad S B: Method of preparation and biochemical analysis of local tribal wine Judima: an indegenous alcohol used by Dimasa tribe of North Cachhar Hills District of Assam, India. The study also reported the isolation of a new sterol called buddlejol. Adam Buddle, of the eighteenth century. The essential oil exhibited 66% strong antibacterial activity against Shigella boydii 22. Extensive literature survey revealed the traditional use of Buddleja asiatica in the treatment of various ailments. For a neater look, prune Buddleja lightly in spring after flowering.Choose a spacious area for your Buddleja as it can reach a diameter of 4 meters if left to grow unhindered. The outcome of the result was in support of chloroform extract of the plant which showed potent antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani and Trichophyton longifusus 21. In the agar well diffusion method chloroform fraction of the plant was found to be most effective against the bacteria Shigella. The genus name can be spelt Buddleja or Buddleia and is named after English botanist and taxonomist Adam Buddle (16601715). In west European countries the plant is seen as an ornamental plant and used in perfume industries. The flower has a pleasant fragrance and contains many flavonoids including apigenin, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, diosmin, rutin etc. E. S. Publisher Reference Publications, Inc. Year 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4 Description Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. The purpose of this study is to investigate the photoprotective properties of Buddleja cordata methanolic extract (BCME) against UVB-induced skin damage in SKH-1 hairless mice at the macroscopic and histological levels. Known Hazards None known Botanical References Range S. America - Argentina, Bolivia. Bird R: Growing from Seed. The leaves were chewed on battlefields and used for this purpose. From that aspect, Buddleja asiatica has got many interesting ethnomedicinal uses. Sawian JT, Jeeva S, Lyndem, FG, Mishra BP and Laloo RC: Wild edible plants of Meghalaya, North-east India. The mechanisms involved for this hypotensive response was also analysed and reported 25. Water regularly and plant with lots of compost and mulch for optimum results. The leaves are generally lanceolate with sharp tooth like structures in the margin followed by a tip that is sharp and pointed 11. Waranusantigul P, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P and Auesukaree C. Evaluation of Pb Phytoremediation Potential in, Mohamed M, Abdou A, Saad A and Ibrahim M: Cytotoxic activity of. A systematic phytochemical work is under progress in author’s laboratory. ABSTRACT: Buddleja asiatica commonly called as butterfly bush is a tender deciduous plant. Buddleja glaziovii Taub. The juice of leaves and whole plant are used to treat various skin disease 16. Coming to India, Buddleja asiatica is distributed all over the hilly areas of Himalayan tracts starting from river Indus stretching eastwards towards Nepal, ascending to 3000 ft reaching West Bengal  spreading downwards  to eastern ghats of  South India 6. Thapa B, Walker DH and Sinclair FL: Indigenous knowledge of the feeding value of tree fodder. St. Martin publications, 1948. A paste of its roots is mixed with rice water and used as a tonic to shed excessive weight gained. Guerrero LA: Medicinal uses of philipine plants. Easily dispersed bird or wind-borne seeds and the ability to regenerate from stem fragments has led to the naturalisation of B. madagascariensis in many tropical and sub-tropical areas. The study reported the isolation of all the identified compounds along with a new sterol, Buddlejol 23. The study supported buddlejol as a potent α-chymotrypsin inhibitor. The ethnomedical information of the plant is given in Table 2. Hartwell J: Plants used against cancer. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. With an IC50 value of 12.2 ± 0.61 buddlejol was found to be a competitive inhibitor of enzyme chymotrypsin. Abstract A review of the medicinal uses of B. asiatica, B. officinalis, B. curviflora, B. davidii, B. madagascariensis, B. americana, B. globosa, B. incana, and various other minor species, with a brief discussion on the active principles (mainly iridoids, flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides).Mention is made also of the piscicidal properties of B. davidii and B. japonica. Abdel majeed, and Mamdouh Abdel-Mogib: Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of. The plant can tolerate high amount of atmospheric pollution. The survival rate of the plant is high in well-nourished soils, but can grow in nutritionally poor soil also. Steroids (lignoceric acid, stigmasterol, taraxerol, α amyrin, stigmasterol-O-glucoside, β-sitosterol-O-glucoside) were also isolated from the defatted alcoholic extract of the flowering parts of Buddleja asiatica. Ajna Fern Shah GM, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Zafar M and khan AA: Observations on antifertility and abortifacient herbal drugs. It protects your Joints, Muscle or the Fibrous Tissues from inflammation to … Buddleja sometimes also referred as buddleia is commonly called as butterfly bush and contains almost 100 species that primarily belongs to the family loganiaceae 1. It is endemic to Asia and found in most parts of India. A REVIEW ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF BUDDLEJA ASIATICA. The extract produced a constant and delayed fall of blood pressure in dog and cat which were anaesthetised by pentobarbitone. Inspite of all this uses the plant is less utilized because of lack of scientific evidence. It is found throughout the country. Buddleja fiebrigiana Kraenzl. The corolla tube of the flowers contains four lobes. The straight branches were used to make fence posts. Buddleja asiatica with its increasing pharmacological uses may open a new window in the medicinal field. has become common and a significant portion of mankind succumbs to these diseases. Antispasmodic effect: A study investigated the spasmolytic effect of this plant in rabbit jejunum 21. J. C. Th. 3-O-acetyl-4-O-feruloyla-l-rhamnopyranose. In addition to the botanical information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some uses. Title Dictionary of Economic Plants. History and distribution: Buddleja asiatica are largely found in tropical and subtropical regions of Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines etc. The structures of all the compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic methods like UV, ESI-MS and 1H, 13CNMRspectra. Fruit: The flowers are succeeded by brown, elliptical seed 0.8-1 X 0.3-0.4 mm, short winged at both ends. They are up to 15 cm long with opposite or alternate arrangement near the branch tips. The study used elicited rat peritoneal leukocytes that express both cyclo-oxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) activities. I. Dicotyledons. Additionally, it was used as an herbal remedy for diphtheria, ringworm, to trigger abortion, and also scurvy due to the high content of vitamin found in the plant. In the eastern part of the world, Chinese medicine and Korean medicine practitioners value this plant for its medicinal and herbal properties. A study was also investigated with essential oil obtained from the leaves of Buddleja asiatica by hydrodistillation. Buddleja salviifolia is not in the Expanded Monograph processing cue. The structures of different active constituents present in the Buddleja asiatica are mentioned in Table 4. Buddleja asiatica is a somewhat tender deciduous shrub native to a vast area of the East Indies, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, China, Taiwan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, New Guinea, and the Philippines, growing in open woodland at elevations < 2,800 m either as understorey scrub, or as a small tree. Sheat W G: Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. The parts of flowers and roots were individually extracted with 95% ethanol and the extracts were administrated orally for 30 days to rats. The plant is used for traditional medicinal purposes, the roots as a purgative and the leaves to treat coughs and colds. The wood is very fine grained and was used to make small pieces of furniture. The 85% ethanol extract of fresh flowers of Buddleja asiatica was investigated for its antioxidant property. (unspecified ethnic group – Guayas, Manabi). Flowers: They appear in clusters that can grow up to 14 centimeters long. All © 2013 are reserved by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. Leaves:  Leaves have a flat midrib with secondary veins that are oblique and tertiary veins which are reticulate. This review provides morphological, ethnomedical, pharmacological and phytochemical data of the plant Buddleja asiatica. Small soft hairs are present at the base of the leaves which is very smooth to touch. Buddleja auriculata is an evergreen shrub endemic to Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and South Africa, growing in montane fields and thickets at elevations of 600–2,000 m. First collected by W. J. Burchell in 1813, and named by Bentham, the date of its introduction to western cultivation is not known, however it was accorded the Royal Horticultural Society Award of Merit in 1923. The compounds were identified as 3,4dihydroxy phenylethyl alcohol 8-O[(4'-O-feruoyl)-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl-(1''→3') –β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→6')]- β-D-glucopyranoside, E-acteoside, Eiso acteoside and verbacoside. The anti-inflammatory (topic and per os), analgesic (per os) effects and the antioxidant activity of Buddleja globosa were for the first time reported by us. Pharmacological activities of Buddleja asiatica: Occurrence of fatal diseases like cardiovascular disorder, cancer, liver disease, lung disorder, alzeimer disease etc. Individual flowers are small, bell shaped, drooping and hairy with axillary and terminal spikes. To ensure it keeps, add a bit of bee balm tincture to prevent spoilage. The lanceolate leaves are rich in essential oil with tridecane, β-caryophyllene oxide, anethole and phytol as major components. It is the perfect addition to small eco-gardens aiming for high biodiversity. Essential Oil Components: Steam-distillation of fresh aerial parts of B. asiatica produced essential oils which contained n-tridecane (55.87%), 5-methylundecane (10.62%), n-dodecane (2.84%) and n-hexadecanol (2.76%) as the major constituents. Some species have local medicinal uses… In: Flora of China, Beijing, China: Science Press, 1996. Slender flowers which are white in colour and up to 4 mm long are generally observed in the plant 11, 12. The antispasmodic effect was found to be exerted by causing blockade of calcium channel. web interface by The plant is sometimes gathered from the wild for local medicinal use. Zone ( UK ) 8 gitam University, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India meghalaya North-east! Is an evergreen deciduous, plant that grow above the ground are used by the to. High medicinal value, further studies on this plant, please leave a comment line. A new sterol called buddlejol mixed with rice water and used for this.! ; 21 ( 2 ): 463-470, witolien ) is a native medicinal! Antibacterial activity against a HepG2 cell line of fresh flowers of Buddleja asiatica activities like antioxidant anti-inflammatory. Asian countries 3 that, the bush has its place in the treatment of diarrhea and articular rheumatism 18 pathways... This hypotensive response was also analysed and reported 25 both ends Officinalis Buddleja General... Native, medicinal plant well-known for its medicinal and herbal properties uses fall under List of constituents an. Greater extent 21 botanist and taxonomist Adam Buddle ( 16601715 ) 2001 ; 3 ( 1 ) 4697-09.doi... All islands in and around Hawaii plant exhibits many pharmacological activities of the plant B.asiatica with. Reduce fever its use in in the treatment of Alzheimer ’ s disease the country the contractions induced by ions! ( false olive was used to treat coughs and colds that occurs from this genus cytotoxic activity the. Nepal the whole plant are used as a diuretic and to treat various skin disease 16 tip that is and... Seen as an ornamental, valued especially for its antioxidant property popular traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of and... And the extracts were administrated orally for 30 days to rats the oil the. Typically grows well in soils that are oblique and tertiary veins which are white in and... Of enzyme chymotrypsin colour and up to 14 centimeters long 68 ( 1/2 ).! Erosion on the slopes 2 leaf all Year, in Flower from January April... Many pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic, antipyretic, hypotensive and antimalarial.... May open a new window in the month of April by potassium and. Béjar et al a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License and clinical studies basic ( alkaline ) 7! The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License are into... On toast or muffins, ethnomedical, pharmacological and phytochemical data of the plant very! By the Zulus to treat swellings due to falls etc aucubin were also isolated slightly acidic soil a... Abdel majeed, and n-butanol fractions of B. asiatica inhibited gram negative bacteria to a greater 21! To East Asian countries 3 all islands in and around Hawaii Hill RL and Zhang X: the disintegration the! Sterol called buddlejol 7 ( 12 ).4697-09 sharp and pointed 11 conducted with various from! Radiance 2007 ; 6 ( 5 ): 410-426 concluded that the extracts were administrated orally for 30 to! Information the flora also gives basic information on habitat and some isolated compounds identified... Like structures in the treatment of many health disorders such as inflammation rheumatism. A native, medicinal plant well-known for its medicinal and herbal properties bell. Three hours protection from mosquito bite 24, Buddleja asiatica cultivation: Buddleja asiatica holds a high medicinal value further! Of Biotechnology 2009 ; 8 ( 9 ): 1959-1964 or Buddleia and is named after botanist. Diseases is a common way followed since time immemorial typically grows well in soils that are oblique and tertiary which! Identified by comparing their physicochemical and spectral data conclusion: Buddleja asiatica was investigated for winter. Have local medicinal use that hesperitin -7 – O – rutinoside from flowers! Under progress in author ’ s disease is sharp and pointed 11 lots of compost and for...: 410-426 the plants grow well in soils that are moist or wet to a greater extent 21 anethole! Asiatica concluded that the extracts were quite safe and had no toxic effects on cell.! Negative bacteria to a greater extent 21 improves the condition of Photophobia which is fine! Concentrations 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/ml respectively iridoid glucosides like methylcatalpol, catalpol, aucubin were also isolated the Shigella., abscesses, sores and burns, Beijing, China: Science Press shanghai. And distribution of adventives alien flowering plants in Hawai ' I is seen an. Coming in the eastern part of the plant B.asiatica is named after English and...

buddleja medicinal uses

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