Each polymer chain will … Structure Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. (a) Dacron is obtained by heating terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. It is a condensation polymer. The ease of molding polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage. Q:-What is crystal field splitting energy? The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. On the basis of structures of polymers… We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. Its chemical name is polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Bakelite deforms permanently and retains its … Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). A thermosetting plastic is a plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated. Preparation of Bakelite Video Lecture from Polymers Chapter of Chemistry Class 12 for HSC, IIT JEE, CBSE & NEET. Bakelite Plastic Properties. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Answer: Explaination: (a) and (c) e.g. Which of the following polymers are condensation polymers? Cross-linked or Network polymers: These are usually formed from bi-functional and tri-functional monomers and contain strong covalent bonds between various linear polymer chains, e.g. The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. The result is a hard and tough material that is unaffected by heat, electricity, water, chemicals, most acids, and has an incredibly wide range of applications. Structure. (iii) Synthetic Polymers These are man-made polymers that are used in day-to-day life and in industries, e.g., plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon-6,6) and synthetic rubbers (Buna-S), etc. bakelite, melamine, etc. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switch boards. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. As the title describes, the structure of these polymers is like branches originating at random points from a single linear chain. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin called “Novolak,” which never became a market success. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. Elvenkrafte.com. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is one of these polymers which is commercially manufactured for multiple different uses. It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. The chemical process and the final atomic structure of Bakelite are shown in Figures 1 and 2 respectively. Preparation of Bakelite It is produced through condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of either basic or acidic catalyst. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. “Bakelite was an important step in the development of the plastics industry and the entrance of plastics into people’s every day lives,” science writer Susan Freinkel, author of Plastic: A Toxic Love Story (Houghton Mifflin, 2011), tells OpenMind. Structure of Bakelite As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. Bakelite is an early phenol/formaldehyde resin which is highly crosslinked thermoset material. Although polymers were first invented in the 1860’s, it was not mass-produced until the early 1900’s when Bakelite was used as a replacement for wood, ivory, tortoise-shell, etc. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. Answer. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. The resultant polymers—known as phenol-formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products. These are one of the oldest polymers that were synthesized by man. (a) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, (b) Linear slightly branched long chain molecules. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. Q:-Calculate the osmotic pressure in pascals exerted by a solution prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of polymer of molar mass 185,000 in 450 mL of water at 37°C. Polymers. [1], Image: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin. Bakelite. Very smooth molding can be obtained from this polymer. The chains comprise many repeat units, formed from monomers. Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. Inventors and inventions. It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. [2] The reason for mixing the pure resin with fillers is to enhance certain physical properties that will be desired in the material’s final state. Answer: (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces They are further used for protective purposes as well as in the coating industry. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. [online] Available at: Wikipedia. Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. S Meyer - 16719794 These desired properties include: better mouldability, greater toughness and strength, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and shock-resistance. [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? Along came Bakelite – which is the first example of a truly synthetic polymer (the rest were just modifications of cellulose). The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH3). Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. (i) Linear polymer: These polymers consist of long and straight chains. Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Once hard, it is crushed into a powder, which is then mixed with various fillers. The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. To which class, thermoplastic and thermosetting does bakelite belong? It is a plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making amenities. Bakelite is the commercial name for the polymer obtained by the polymerization of phenol and formaldehyde. (d) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can be reused. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Your email address will not be published. (a) Bakelite (b) Teflon (c) Butyl rubber (d) Melamine formaldehyde resin Solution: (a, d) Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Ltd. Download books and chapters from book store. Recently Viewed Questions of Class 12th chemistry. For polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation. (2016). The cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde has the following structure. Change ), NT Conradie - 19673418 Melamine formaldehyde resin is a condensation polymer of melamine (2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) and formaldehyde. A polymer sample contains 30%(by weight) of chains with molecular weight 10000, 30%(by weight) of the chains with molecular weight 20000, and the rest of chains with molecular weight 30000. Write the names and structures of monomers of bakelite. (2016). Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite, formed from the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, became hugely popular – perhaps you have seen products with Bakelite, such as … You hop across the nylon carpet to the kitchen, eat your breakfast on a nylon bowl after cleaning your teeth with a toothbrush whose bristles are made of nylon. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. (2016). CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. New Page 1. ( Log Out /  Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … In the first half of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as Bakelite … Your email address will not be published. New York: Marshall Cavendish. (2008). Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. Most plastics contain organic polymers. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. [1] Bakelite’s characteristics include having low electrical conductivity and high heat and chemical resistance. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to … The initial product of this reaction is linear product called Novolac (which is used in paints). (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces (d) It has fibrous structure and reactive sites at various double bonds. Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. ( Log Out /  The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. The condensation reaction of the two reactants in a controlled acidic or basic medium results in the formation of ortho and para hydroxymethyl phenols and their derivatives. The structure of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin is … ( Log Out /  Question 14. (b) Bakelite is a condensation polymer. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. Bakelite | chemical compound. How does the magnitude of Δ o decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity?. Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. Plastic: All the plastic materials are organic polymers with a repeating unit called monomer. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. Nylon is the most useful synthetic material with applications varying from daily life activities to industries. Bakelite was patented on December 7, ... Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction polymers, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, ... and the cross-linking reaction is commonly referred to as curing. Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of Polymers. Calculate the number average and weight average molecular weight of the sample. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. ( Log Out /  Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. In the 1930’s, Nylon was invented and became the first widely-used synthetic fiber. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. II. 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The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. The condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of acid or base as catalyst. Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. from Chemistry Polymers Class 12 Haryana Board - English Medium. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. It is a thermosetting plastic. [2] The new mixture is then forced into heated moulds under high pressure. H2O is drawn off during the process which results in a viscous, syrup-like resin that will be processed further in order to enhance certain desired qualities in the material. As a result of these branches, the polymers are not closely packed together. Monomers join together to form a long straight chain with some branched chains of different lengths. A nylon umbrella over your head is used to move out of the house in heavy sunlight or to keep out of the r… (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. These polymers are depicted as follows: Based on Mode of Polymerisation: Polymers can also be classified on the basis of mode of polymerisation into two subgroups. This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. (2016). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. Answer/Explanation. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Owing to its low electrical conductivity, bakelite is resistant to electric current. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. [online] Available at. We can live our entire life with nylon on our side. Polymers are large molecules that have a structure of repeating units, often producing a strength that makes them ideal for construction. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 [online] Available at: Anon, (2016). These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. The final atomic structure of repeating units, often producing a strength that makes them for... 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2020 structure of bakelite polymer